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Chemosphere. 2014 Dec;117:521-6. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.008. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

4-methylphenol produced in freshwater sediment microcosms is not a bisphenol A metabolite.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States; Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States.
2
Department of Chemistry, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States.
3
Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
4
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States; Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States; University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (UT-ORNL) Joint Institute for Biological Sciences (JIBS) and Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, United States. Electronic address: frank.loeffler@utk.edu.

Abstract

4-Methylphenol (4-MP), a putative bisphenol A (BPA) degradation intermediate, was detected at concentrations reaching 2.1 mg L(-1) in anoxic microcosms containing 10 mg L(-1) BPA and 5 g of freshwater sediment material collected from four geographically distinct locations and amended with nitrate, nitrite, ferric iron, or bicarbonate as electron acceptors. 4-MP accumulation was transient, and 4-MP degradation was observed under all redox conditions tested. 4-MP was not detected in microcosms not amended with BPA. Unexpectedly, incubations with (13)C-labeled BPA failed to produce (13)C-labeled 4-MP suggesting that 4-MP was not derived from BPA. The detection of 4-MP in live microcosms amended with lactate, but not containing BPA corroborated that BPA was not the source of 4-MP. These findings demonstrate that the transient formation of 4-MP as a possible BPA degradation intermediate must be interpreted cautiously, as microbial activity in streambed microcosms may generate 4-MP from sediment-associated organic material.

KEYWORDS:

4-Methylphenol; Bisphenol A (BPA); Degradation; Microcosm; Sediment

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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