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Br J Gen Pract. 2014 Oct;64(627):e627-33. doi: 10.3399/bjgp14X681793.

Cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle, and social determinants: a cross-sectional population study.

Author information

1
Teaching and Research Unit, Extremadura Health Service, Cáceres, Spain.
2
Villanueva Norte Health Centre, Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Spain.
3
Urbano 1 Health Centre, Mérida, Spain.
4
Teaching unit, Don Benito-Villanueva de la Serena Department of Health, Badajoz, Spain.
5
Don Benito-Villanueva de la Serena Department of Health, Badajoz, Spain.
6
La Paz University Health Centre, Badajoz, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The influence of socioeconomic development is often disregarded in epidemiological studies into the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.

AIM:

To analyse the relationship between major cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic indicators.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

Cross-sectional, population-wide study in primary care practices in the health area of Don Benito-Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain.

METHOD:

A total of 2833 people aged 25-79 years (mean age 51.2 years), representative of the population, participated in the study. The prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for diabetes, arterial hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, and sedentary behaviour, according to level of education and employment status.

RESULTS:

A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors related to the level of education and employment status. Females who had not studied at university had a higher risk of obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 4.2), smoking (OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.7), and sedentary behaviour (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5 to 3.9) than females with a university education. Males who had not studied at university showed an increased risk of smoking (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4 to 3.1), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.4), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.2), and obesity (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3) than males with a university education. The risk of obesity was higher in unemployed females than those in paid employment (OR =1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.9), but they showed a lower risk of smoking (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.9).

CONCLUSION:

The study results confirm an inverse association between the level of education and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Public health studies and interventions are needed to understand this association and develop interventions targeted at the population that is at greatest risk.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; employment status; primary care; risk factors; social inequalities; socioeconomic status

PMID:
25267048
PMCID:
PMC4173725
DOI:
10.3399/bjgp14X681793
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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