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J Med Invest. 2014;61(3-4):217-25.

State of the art: Transforaminal approach for percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy under local anesthesia.

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Department of Orthopedics, the University of Tokushima.


Minimally invasive percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) with a transforaminal approach under local anesthesia was started in the late 20th century. As the procedure requires a skin incision of only 8 mm, it is the least invasive disc surgery procedure at present, and owing to advances in instruments and optics, the use of this technique has gradually spread. In Japan, Dr. Dezawa from Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital introduced this technique in 2003. Thanks to his efforts, the number of surgeons who can perform PED has increased, although the number of active PED surgeons is still only around 20. The first author (K.S.) started PED in 2010. In this review article, we explain the state-of-the-art PED transforaminal technique for minimally invasive disc surgery and present three successful cases.

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