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Physiol Rep. 2014 Sep 28;2(9). pii: e12150. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12150. Print 2014 Sep 1.

Catheter-based induction of renal ischemia/reperfusion in swine: description of an experimental model.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
2
Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology, Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
3
Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
4
Biosciences National Laboratory, LNBio, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
5
Department of Pathology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Several techniques to induce renal ischemia have been proposed: clamp, PVA particles, and catheter-balloon. We report the development of a controlled, single-insult model of unilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) without contralateral nephrectomy, using a suitable model, the pig. This is a balloon-catheter-based model using a percutaneous, interventional radiology procedure. One angioplasty balloon-catheter was placed into the right renal artery and inflated for 120 min and reperfusion over 24 h. Serial serums were sampled from the inferior vena cava and urine was directly sampled from the bladder throughout the experiment, and both kidneys were excised after 24 h of reperfusion. Analyses of renal structure and function were performed by hematoxylin-eosin/periodic Acid-Schiff, serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), fractional excretion of ions, and glucose, SDS-PAGE analysis of urinary proteins, and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Total nitrated protein was quantified to characterize oxidative stress. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was identified in every animal, but only two animals showed levels of SCr above 150% of baseline values. As expected, I/R increased SCr and BUN. Fractional sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate excretion were modulated during ischemia. Serum-nitrated proteins and NGAL had two profiles: decreased with ischemia and increased after reperfusion. This decline was associated with increased protein excretion during ischemia and early reperfusion. Altogether, these data show that the renal I/R model can be performed by percutaneous approach in the swine model. This is a suitable translational model to study new early renal ischemic biomarkers and pathophysiological mechanisms in renal ischemia.

KEYWORDS:

Acute kidney injury; acute tubular necrosis; balloon‐catheter; ischemia; renal artery occlusion; swine model

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