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Anal Chim Acta. 2014 Oct 27;848:32-42. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2014.08.003. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.

Author information

1
CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address: ldias@ipb.pt.
2
CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address: cedric.b.s@hotmail.com.
3
Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra, Portugal; CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal. Electronic address: anaveloso@isec.pt.
4
CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address: mebsousadias@gmail.com.
5
LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering - Associate Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address: peres@ipb.pt.

Abstract

Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue's capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: Radj>0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7<glycemic load≤30; 0.4<fructose intolerance index≤1.5; 32<sweetness perception<155; 1.3<total acid flavor, gL(-1)<8.3; and, 5.8<well-balanced flavor≤74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage's healthy and sensory evaluation.

KEYWORDS:

Electronic tongue; Fructose-intolerance index; Glycemic load; Linear discriminant analysis; Simulated annealing algorithm; Sugar sweetened beverages

PMID:
25263114
DOI:
10.1016/j.aca.2014.08.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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