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Neurology. 2014 Oct 28;83(18):1592-600. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000932. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Cerebral metabolite changes prior to and after antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection.

Author information

1
From Yale University (A.C.Y., S.S.), New Haven, CT; Indiana University (C.T.Y.), Indianapolis; and the University of California (M.H., E.L., J.P., R.W., R.W.P., D.J.M.), San Francisco.
2
From Yale University (A.C.Y., S.S.), New Haven, CT; Indiana University (C.T.Y.), Indianapolis; and the University of California (M.H., E.L., J.P., R.W., R.W.P., D.J.M.), San Francisco. serena.spudich@yale.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We examined the longitudinal effects of primary HIV infection (PHI) and responses to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the brain using high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).

METHODS:

Cerebral metabolites were measured longitudinally with 4T proton MRS and assessed for ART effects in participants with PHI. Levels of glutamate (Glu), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (MI), and choline-containing metabolites (Cho) were measured relative to creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr) in anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, frontal white matter, and parietal gray matter.

RESULTS:

Fifty-three participants recruited at median 3.7 months post HIV transmission were followed a median 6.0 months. A total of 23 participants initiated ART during follow-up. Prior to ART, increases per month were observed in Cho/Cr (slope = 0.0012, p = 0.005) and MI/Cr (slope = 0.0041, p = 0.005) in frontal white matter as well as increases in MI/Cr (slope = 0.0041, p < 0.001) and NAA/Cr (slope = 0.0024, p = 0.030) in parietal gray matter. After initiation of ART, prior positive slopes were no longer significantly different from zero, while Glu/Cr in basal ganglia decreased (slope = -0.0038, p = 0.031).

CONCLUSIONS:

Early in HIV infection, increases of Cho/Cr and MI/Cr in treatment-naive participants suggest progressive inflammation and gliosis in the frontal white matter and parietal gray matter, which is attenuated after initiation of ART. Elevated baseline Glu/Cr in basal ganglia may signal excitotoxicity; its subsequent stabilization and downward trajectory with ART may lend further support for early ART initiation.

PMID:
25261502
PMCID:
PMC4223087
DOI:
10.1212/WNL.0000000000000932
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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