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Cereb Cortex. 2016 Feb;26(2):618-27. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu227. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Effects of Separate or Combined Neonatal Damage to the Orbital Frontal Cortex and the Inferior Convexity on Object Recognition in Monkeys.

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Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.


Unlike adult damage, neonatal damage to the inferior prefrontal convexity (IC) in monkeys spares learning and performance on the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) task ( Málková et al. 2000). We investigated whether this sparing was due to compensation by undamaged orbital frontal cortex (O), an area also critical for DNMS, by comparing combined IC and O damage (Neo-ICO) with damage to O alone (Neo-O). Group Neo-ICO was impaired on DNMS learning at 3 months and 2 years of age. In contrast, Group Neo-O was impaired at 3 months, but recovered this function by 2 years, compared with Neo-IC and controls (N). We propose that the intact IC assumed the function of learning the DNMS rule for Group Neo-O. The persistent impairment after Neo-ICO lesions suggests that whereas O may likely support the rule acquisition in the absence of IC, no compensatory mechanisms are available after the combined damage. For the memory of lists of items, all groups were impaired at 3 months. At 2 years, the performance of Groups N and Neo-IC dramatically improved, whereas that of groups with O damage (Neo-O and Neo-ICO) remained impaired, indicating a critical role for O in recognition memory that cannot be substituted by another area.


lesion; memory; recognition; rhesus macaque

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