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Scand J Public Health. 2014 Dec;42(8):814-20. doi: 10.1177/1403494814550519. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Vitamin D status and PUFA ratios in a national representative cross-section of healthy, middle-aged Norwegian women—the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort.

Author information

1
Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway karina.s.olsen@uit.no.
2
Departments of Clinical Science Section for Paediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
3
Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
4
Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Abstract

AIMS:

Vitamin D and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are derived from partially overlapping sources. Vitamin D is produced in the skin after sun exposure, but is also derived from fatty fish and fish oils. Dietary PUFAs are mainly derived from plant oils that are rich in n-6 PUFAs, but fatty fish provides high amounts of the marine n-3 PUFAs. The Western diet provides an excess of n-6 PUFAs compared to n-3 PUFAs, and the ratios of these may influence human health. Here, we investigated the potential associations of plasma concentrations of vitamin D, marine PUFAs and PUFA ratios.

METHODS:

Plasma concentrations of vitamin D (25(OH)D), marine PUFAs, and PUFA ratios were measured in 372 women from the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Post-Genome Cohort. Covariability was examined in 310 non-users of cod liver oil, using Spearman's rank correlation and linear regression.

RESULTS:

In non-users of cod liver oil, the average concentration of vitamin D was 40.3 nmol/L, and marine PUFA concentration was 0.2 mg/g. PUFA ratios were dominated by the n-6 fatty acids. Vitamin D levels were significantly associated with marine fatty acids and weakly associated with PUFA ratios.

CONCLUSIONS:

Concentrations of vitamin D and marine PUFAs were below recommended levels. The correlation analyses indicated that health-related effects of vitamin D and marine PUFAs respectively may be hard to separate in epidemiological studies. However, measured health effects of PUFA ratios and vitamin D are likely to derive from the influence of the two factors separately. The presented results are the first to show these associations in a nationally representative cohort.

KEYWORDS:

Fatty acids; PUFA; epidemiology; fatty fish; nutrition; vitamin D

PMID:
25260641
DOI:
10.1177/1403494814550519
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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