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J Insect Physiol. 2014 Nov;70:88-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.09.006. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Rhodopsin management during the light-dark cycle of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Galvin Life Science Building and the Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Galvin Life Science Building and the Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. Electronic address: jotousa@nd.edu.

Abstract

The tropical disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae possesses 11 rhodopsin genes. Three of these, GPROP1, GPROP3, and GPROP4, encode rhodopsins with >99% sequence identity. We created antisera against these rhodopsins and used immunohistology to show that one or more of these rhodopsins are expressed in the major R1-6 photoreceptor class of the adult A.gambiae eye. Under dark conditions, rhodopsin accumulates within the light-sensitive rhabdomere of the photoreceptor. Light treatment, however, causes extensive movement of rhodopsin to the cytoplasmic compartment. Protein electrophoresis showed that the rhodopsin is present in two different forms. The larger form is an immature species that is deglycosylated during the posttranslational maturation process to generate the smaller, mature form. The immature form is maintained at a constant level regardless of lighting conditions. These results indicate that rhodopsin biosynthesis and movement into the rhabdomere occurs at a constant rate. In contrast, the mature form increases in abundance when animals are placed in dark conditions. Light-triggered internalization and protein degradation counteracts this rhodopsin increase and keeps rhabdomeric rhodopsin levels low in light conditions. The interplay of the constant maturation rate with light-triggered degradation causes rhodopsin to accumulate within the rhabdomere only in dark conditions. Thus, Anopheles photoreceptors possess a mechanism for adjusting light sensitivity through light-dependent control of rhodopsin levels and cellular location.

KEYWORDS:

Light adaptation; Mosquito vision; Photoreceptor; Rhodopsin cycling; Visual pigment

PMID:
25260623
PMCID:
PMC4498666
DOI:
10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.09.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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