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J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Dec;59:77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.09.006. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Frequency of trauma exposure and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Italy: analysis from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

Author information

1
Section of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56126, Italy. Electronic address: ccarmassi@gmail.com.
2
Section of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56126, Italy. Electronic address: liliana.dellosso@med.unipi.it.
3
Section of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56126, Italy. Electronic address: corrado3@live.it.
4
IRCCS St John of God Clinical Research Centre, Via Pilastroni 4, 25125 Brescia, Italy. Electronic address: vcandini@fatebenefratelli.it.
5
IRCCS St John of God Clinical Research Centre, Via Pilastroni 4, 25125 Brescia, Italy. Electronic address: jdagani@fatebenefratelli.it.
6
IRCCS St John of God Clinical Research Centre, Via Pilastroni 4, 25125 Brescia, Italy. Electronic address: liozzino@fatebenefratelli.it.
7
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Room 720G, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: kck5@mail.cumc.columbia.edu.
8
IRCCS St John of God Clinical Research Centre, Via Pilastroni 4, 25125 Brescia, Italy. Electronic address: gdegirolamo@fatebenefratelli.it.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have examined the relative importance of Traumatic Events (TEs) in accounting for the societal burden of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, most studies used the worst trauma experienced, which can lead to an overestimation of the conditional risk of PTSD. Although a number of epidemiological surveys on PTSD have been carried out in the United States, only a few studies in limited sample have been conducted in Italy. This study, carried out in the framework of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative, is a cross-sectional household survey of a representative sample of the Italian adult population. Lifetime prevalence of TEs and 12-month prevalence of PTSD were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Reports of PTSD associated with randomly selected TEs were weighted by the individual-level probabilities of TE selection to generate estimates of population-level PTSD risk associated with each TE. Network events was the most commonly reported class of TEs (29.4%). War events had the highest conditional risk of PTSD (12.2%). The TEs that contributed most to societal PTSD burden were unexpected death of a loved one (24.1%) and having seen atrocities (18.2%). Being female was related to high risk of PTSD after experiencing a TE. Exposure to network events is commonly reported among Italian adults, but two TEs are responsible for the highest burden associated with PTSD: the unexpected death of someone close and sexual assault. These results can help designing public health interventions to reduce the societal PTSD burden.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Exposure; PTSD; Trauma

PMID:
25266475
PMCID:
PMC4313080
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.09.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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