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Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014 Sep 18;7:421-35. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S45183. eCollection 2014.

Relationship between chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome: current perspectives.

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Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Care Coordination Institute and Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC, USA.


Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing in incidence and lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between these two entities is complex. Individual components of the MetS are known risk factors for incident kidney disease, but it is not clear how the clustering of these components is linked to the development and progression of kidney disease. Cross-sectional studies show an association of the MetS and prevalent CKD; however, one cannot draw conclusions as to which came first - the MetS or the kidney disease. Observational studies suggest a relationship between MetS and incident CKD, but they also demonstrate the development of MetS in patients with established CKD. These observations suggest a bidirectional relationship. A better understanding of the relationship between components of the MetS and whether and how these components contribute to progression of CKD and incident cardiovascular disease could inform more effective prevention strategies.


adipokines; hypertension; inflammation; insulin resistance; obesity; oxdative stress

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