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Bioconjug Chem. 2015 Feb 18;26(2):166-75. doi: 10.1021/bc5003967. Epub 2014 Oct 27.

Upconversion nanoparticles: a versatile solution to multiscale biological imaging.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School , Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, United States.

Abstract

Lanthanide-doped photon upconverting nanomaterials are emerging as a new class of imaging contrast agents, providing numerous unprecedented possibilities in the realm of biomedical imaging. Because of their ability to convert long-wavelength near-infrared excitation radiation into shorter-wavelength emissions, these nanomaterials are able to produce assets of low imaging background, large anti-Stokes shift, as well as high optical penetration depth of light for deep tissue optical imaging or light-activated drug release and therapy. The aim of this review is to line up some issues associated with conventional fluorescent probes, and to address the recent advances of upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) as a solution to multiscale biological imaging applications.

PMID:
25254658
PMCID:
PMC4335809
DOI:
10.1021/bc5003967
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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