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Viruses. 2014 Sep 24;6(9):3535-62. doi: 10.3390/v6093535.

Drug resistance in non-B subtype HIV-1: impact of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

Author information

1
Christopher Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. singhka@missouri.edu.
2
Christopher Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. jaf468@mail.missouri.edu.
3
Christopher Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. kirbyk@missouri.edu.
4
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 141 86, Sweden. ujjwal.neogi@ki.se.
5
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 141 86, Sweden. Anders.Sonnerborg@ki.se.
6
Clinical Research Center, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, National Hospital Organization, Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya 460-0001, Japan. hachiya@mail-nmc.jp.
7
Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. kalyan@cabm.rutgers.edu.
8
Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. arnold@cabm.rutgers.edu.
9
Department of Oral and Craniofacial Science , School of Dentistry, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA. McArthurC@umkc.edu.
10
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. map167@pitt.edu.
11
Christopher Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. sarafianoss@missouri.edu.

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes approximately 2.5 million new infections every year, and nearly 1.6 million patients succumb to HIV each year. Several factors, including cross-species transmission and error-prone replication have resulted in extraordinary genetic diversity of HIV groups. One of these groups, known as group M (main) contains nine subtypes (A-D, F-H and J-K) and causes ~95% of all HIV infections. Most reported data on susceptibility and resistance to anti-HIV therapies are from subtype B HIV infections, which are prevalent in developed countries but account for only ~12% of all global HIV infections, whereas non-B subtype HIV infections that account for ~88% of all HIV infections are prevalent primarily in low and middle-income countries. Although the treatments for subtype B infections are generally effective against non-B subtype infections, there are differences in response to therapies. Here, we review how polymorphisms, transmission efficiency of drug-resistant strains, and differences in genetic barrier for drug resistance can differentially alter the response to reverse transcriptase-targeting therapies in various subtypes.

PMID:
25254383
PMCID:
PMC4189038
DOI:
10.3390/v6093535
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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