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Photochem Photobiol. 1989 Mar;49(3):299-304.

Oxygen limitation of direct tumor cell kill during photodynamic treatment of a murine tumor model.


The relationship between levels of in vivo accumulated photosensitizer (Photofrin II), photodynamic cell inactivation upon in vitro or in vivo illumination, and changing tumor oxygenation was studied in the radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) mouse tumor model. In vivo porphyrin uptake by tumor cells was assessed by using 14C-labeled photosensitizer, and found to be linear with injected photosensitizer dose over a range of 10 to 100 mg/kg. Cellular photosensitivity upon exposure in vitro to 630 nm light also varied linearly with in vivo accumulated photosensitizer levels in the range of 25 to 100 mg/kg injected Photofrin II, but was reduced at 10 mg/kg. Insignificant increases in direct photodynamic cell inactivation were observed following in vivo light exposure (135 J/cm2, 630 nm) with increasing cellular porphyrin levels. These data were inconsistent with expected results based on in vitro studies. Assessment of vascular occlusion and hypoxic cell fractions following photodynamic tumor treatment showed the development of significant tumor hypoxia, particularly at 50 and 100 mg/kg of Photofrin II, following very brief light exposures (1 min, 4.5 J/cm2). The mean hyupoxic cell fractions of 25 to 30% in these tumors corresponded closely with the surviving cell fractions found after tumor treatment in vivo, indicating that these hypoxic cells had been protected from PDT damage. Inoculation of tumor cells, isolated from tumors after porphyrin exposure, into porphyrin-free hosts, followed by in vivo external light treatment, resulted in tumor control in the absence of vascular tumor bed effects at high photosensitizer doses only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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