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J Vet Intern Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;28(6):1805-13. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12436. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical prognostic factors in dogs with thyroid carcinoma.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine and Clinical Biology of Small Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prognostic markers for dogs with thyroid tumors are limited.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES:

To identify clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical prognostic factors for dogs with thyroid tumors.

ANIMALS:

Seventy dogs with thyroid neoplasia.

METHODS:

Retrospective study. Dogs with thyroid neoplasia were included when follow-up information and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were available. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, Ki-67, and E-cadherin. Correlation of tumor variables (diameter, volume, localization, scintigraphic uptake, thyroid function, IHC) with local invasiveness and metastatic disease was performed on all tumor samples. Forty-four dogs treated by thyroidectomy were included in a survival analysis.

RESULTS:

Fifty dogs (71%) had differentiated follicular cell thyroid carcinoma (dFTC) and 20 (29%) had medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). At diagnosis, tumor diameter (P = .007; P = .038), tumor volume (P = .020), tumor fixation (P = .002), ectopic location (P = .002), follicular cell origin (P = .044), and Ki-67 (P = .038) were positively associated with local invasiveness; tumor diameter (P = .002), tumor volume (P = .023), and bilateral location (P = .012) were positively associated with presence of distant metastases. Forty-four dogs (28 dFTC, 16 MTC; stage I-III) underwent thyroidectomy. Outcome was comparable between dogs with dFTC and MTC. Macroscopic (P = .007) and histologic (P = .046) vascular invasion were independent negative predictors for disease-free survival. Although time to presentation, histologic vascular invasion and Ki-67 were negatively associated with time to metastases, and time to presentation was negatively associated with time to recurrence, no independent predictors were found. E-cadherin expression was not associated with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

Prognostic factors have been identified that provide relevant information for owners and clinicians.

KEYWORDS:

Calcitonin; E-cadherin; Follicular; Ki-67; Medullary

PMID:
25252127
PMCID:
PMC4895641
DOI:
10.1111/jvim.12436
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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