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Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Dec;25(12):1645-58. doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0469-0. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of bladder cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

Author information

1
Shanghai Minhang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 965 Zhongyi Road, Shanghai, 201101, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Observational studies suggest an association between fruit and vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer, but the results are controversial.

METHODS:

We therefore summarized the evidence from observational studies in categorical, linear, and nonlinear, dose-response meta-analysis. Pertinent studies were identified by searching EMBASE and PubMed from their inception to August 2013.

RESULTS:

Thirty-one observational studies involving 12,610 cases and 1,121,649 participants were included. The combined rate ratio (RR, 95 % CI) of bladder cancer for the highest versus lowest intake was 0.83 (0.69-0.99) for total fruit and vegetables, 0.81 (0.70-0.93) for total vegetables, 0.77 (0.69-0.87) for total fruit, 0.84 (0.77-0.91) for cruciferous vegetables, 0.79 (0.68-0.91) for citrus fruits, and 0.74 (0.66-0.84) for yellow-orange vegetables. Subgroup analysis showed study design and gender as possible sources of heterogeneity. A nonlinear relationship was found of citrus fruits intake with risk of bladder cancer (P for nonlinearity = 0.018), and the RRs (95 % CI) of bladder cancer were 0.87 (0.78-0.96), 0.80 (0.67-0.94), 0.79 (0.66-0.94), 0.79 (0.65-0.96), and 0.79 (0.64-0.99) for 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 g/day. A nonlinear relationship was also found of yellow-orange vegetable intake with risk of bladder cancer risk (P for nonlinearity = 0.033). Some evidence of publication bias was observed for fruit, citrus fruits, and yellow-orange vegetables.

CONCLUSION:

This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Future well-designed studies are required to confirm this finding.

PMID:
25248495
DOI:
10.1007/s10552-014-0469-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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