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Korean J Radiol. 2014 Sep-Oct;15(5):554-77. doi: 10.3348/kjr.2014.15.5.554. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging: a comprehensive update on principles and techniques.

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Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 134-727, Korea.
Wolfson Molecular Imaging Center, The University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ, UK.
Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C 8000, Denmark.
Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia.


Perfusion is a fundamental biological function that refers to the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue by means of blood flow. Perfusion MRI is sensitive to microvasculature and has been applied in a wide variety of clinical applications, including the classification of tumors, identification of stroke regions, and characterization of other diseases. Perfusion MRI techniques are classified with or without using an exogenous contrast agent. Bolus methods, with injections of a contrast agent, provide better sensitivity with higher spatial resolution, and are therefore more widely used in clinical applications. However, arterial spin-labeling methods provide a unique opportunity to measure cerebral blood flow without requiring an exogenous contrast agent and have better accuracy for quantification. Importantly, MRI-based perfusion measurements are minimally invasive overall, and do not use any radiation and radioisotopes. In this review, we describe the principles and techniques of perfusion MRI. This review summarizes comprehensive updated knowledge on the physical principles and techniques of perfusion MRI.


Arterial spin-labeling; Dynamic contrast-enhanced; Dynamic susceptibility contrast; Perfusion; Perfusion MRI

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