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Age Ageing. 2014 Nov;43(6):748-59. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu115. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS).

Author information

1
Servicio de Geriatría, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Ctra. Colmenar km 9, 1, 28034 Madrid, Spain.
2
Istituto di Medicina Interna e Geriatria, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.
3
Gastroentérologie et Nutrition Clinique, CHU de Nice, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France.
4
Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Tijuana Baja California Mexico, Mexico.
5
Department of Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
6
Unité de Nutrition Humaine, UMR 1019, INRA, Université Clermont-Ferrand, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, France.
7
Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
8
Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
9
Department of Ageing and Health, Guys and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
10
Département de Réhabilitation et Gériatrie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève-Suisse, Geneva, Switzerland.
11
Institut for Biomedicine of Ageing, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
12
Institute for Exercise Physiology and Wellness Research, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
13
Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
14
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Inserm U558 Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (CHU) - Gérontopôle, Toulouse, France.
15
Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales, Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, The People's Republic of China.
16
Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
17
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP).

METHODS:

PubMed and Dialog databases were searched (January 2000-October 2013) using pre-defined search terms. Prevalence studies and intervention studies investigating muscle mass plus strength or function outcome measures using the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia, in well-defined populations of adults aged ≥50 years were selected.

RESULTS:

prevalence of sarcopenia was, with regional and age-related variations, 1-29% in community-dwelling populations, 14-33% in long-term care populations and 10% in the only acute hospital-care population examined. Moderate quality evidence suggests that exercise interventions improve muscle strength and physical performance. The results of nutrition interventions are equivocal due to the low number of studies and heterogeneous study design. Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements, including ∼2.5 g of leucine, and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplements, show some effects in improving muscle mass and function parameters. Protein supplements have not shown consistent benefits on muscle mass and function.

CONCLUSION:

prevalence of sarcopenia is substantial in most geriatric settings. Well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before treatment guidelines can be developed. Physicians should screen for sarcopenia in both community and geriatric settings, with diagnosis based on muscle mass and function. Supervised resistance exercise is recommended for individuals with sarcopenia. EAA (with leucine) and HMB may improve muscle outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

age-related; exercise intervention; nutrition intervention; older people; prevalence; sarcopenia

PMID:
25241753
PMCID:
PMC4204661
DOI:
10.1093/ageing/afu115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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