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Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Aug;23(4):178-85. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2014.07.002. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Lymphatic malformations: diagnosis and management.

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Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Dayton Children׳s Hospital, One Childrens Plaza, Dayton, Ohio 45404-1815. Electronic address:
Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati Children׳s Hospital, 3333 Burnet Ave/MLC 2018, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039.
Department of Radiology, Boston Children׳s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.


Lymphatic malformations are benign vascular lesions that arise from embryological disturbances in the development of the lymphatic system. They encompass a wide spectrum of related abnormalities, including cystic lymphatic lesions, angiokeratoma, lymphatic malformations that occur in bones (Gorham-Stout Syndrome), lymphatic and chylous leak conditions, and lymphedema. This article will focus only on lymphatic malformation mass lesions, whereas other related disease entities will be covered elsewhere in this journal issue. Lymphatic malformations occur frequently in lymphatic-rich areas such as the head and neck region, but they can also be found on any anatomical site in the body. In general, lymphatic malformations are categorized into macrocystic, microcystic, or combined depending on the size of the cysts contained within the lesion. Lymphatic malformations can cause both deformation of the anatomical site involved and functional deficits. The goal of this article is to discuss the etiology, epidemiology, treatment modalities, and comorbidities associated with lymphatic malformations.


Congenital anomalies; Lymphatic malformations; Sclerotherapy; Surgery; Vascular anomalies

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