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Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr;34(2):195-200. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.08.013. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

Current topics in the diagnosis and management of the pediatric non organic feeding disorders (NOFEDs).

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Pediatric Department, University of Messina, Italy. Electronic address:
Institute for Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Liver Disease, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
Pediatric Department, University of Messina, Italy.


Non-Organic Feeding Disorders (NOFEDs) are frequently encountered in children younger than 6 years old. NOFED are characterized by feeding aversion, failure to advance to age-appropriate foods, food selectivity and negative mealtime behaviors. Parents of children with feeding disorders often use abnormal feeding behaviors, such as intrusive feeding. Persistent inadequate caloric intake leads to non-organic failure to thrive in up to 40-50% of cases. Managing children with NOFED is a challenge for even the most experienced pediatric specialists. Management by a multidisciplinary team, as outpatient or inpatient should address both nutritional support and feeding behavior modification. Even in the absence of failure to thrive, children with behavioral feeding problems are at risk of negative health, social and emotional outcomes, including nutrient deficiencies, social and family disruption or conflict. The aims of the current review are to present an update of the definition, classification, etiology, epidemiology of NOFED, as well as clinical presentation, evaluation and management of this condition and non-organic failure to thrive, often associated with NOFED.


Aversive feeding behaviors; Failure to thrive; Feeding disorders; Nutrition care plan

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