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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Jan;25(1):52-9. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2014.08.003. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.

Author information

1
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.
2
Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science of St-Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada.
3
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
4
Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 6C5, Canada.
5
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. Electronic address: benoit.lamarche@fsaa.ulaval.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Little is known about the effect of various dietary fatty acids on pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key inflammatory genes and transcription factors in whole blood cells.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In a randomized, crossover controlled nutrition intervention, 114 adult men and women with abdominal obesity and at least one other criterion for the metabolic syndrome consumed 5 experimental isoenergetic diets for 4 weeks each, separated by 4-week washout periods. Each diet provided 60 g/3000 kcal of different oils: 1) control corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff; LA-rich), 2) flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff; ALA-rich), 3) conventional canola oil (Canola; OA-rich), 4) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest OA content), 5) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; OA- and DHA-rich). Gene expression in whole blood cells was assessed in a subset of 62 subjects. CanolaDHA increased plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with the control CornSaff oil treatment (+4.5%, P = 0.04) and FlaxSaff (+6.9%, P = 0.0008). CanolaDHA also reduced relative expression levels of interleukin (IL)1B compared with CornSaff and Canola (-11% and -13%, respectively, both P = 0.03). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were lower after Canola than after FlaxSaff (-17.8%, P = 0.047).

CONCLUSION:

DHA-enriched canola oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant sources.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01351012.

KEYWORDS:

Adiponectin; Alpha-linolenic acid; C-Reactive protein; Cardiovascular disease; Dietary oils; Docosahexaenoic acid; Inflammation; Interleukin-6

PMID:
25240692
DOI:
10.1016/j.numecd.2014.08.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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