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BMC Vet Res. 2014 Sep 19;10:207. doi: 10.1186/s12917-014-0207-6.

The use of the HRM method for identifying possible mutations in the ymoA gene region and evaluating their influence on the enterotoxic properties of Y. enterocolitica strains.



The yst gene that encodes the production of Yst enterotoxins is one of the most important and reliable virulence markers. Its ability to produce Yst has been demonstrated in pathogenic strains isolated from clinical cases of yersiniosis with diarrhea. However, not all yst positive strains produce enterotoxins. According to some authors, Yst production can be restored in a silent strain by ymoA mutation. In this study, the HRM method was applied to identify ymoA single nucleotide polymorphism with the aim of evaluating their influence on the enterotoxic properties of Y. enterocolitica strains.


Two genotypes (A and G) of the examined nucleotide sequence and some variations were detected in the HRM analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of 10 genotype A nucleotide sequences revealed 100% similarity with the Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica 8081 genome NCBI Acc. No. AM286415. An analysis of 10 genotype G nucleotide sequences and 3 variations sequences revealed two point mutations in the examined region: transition A3387326G and insertion A in position 3387368. However, no mutations were observed in the coding region of any of the examined ymoA gene fragments. Genotype G was identified in nearly all Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from pigs. Only 4 nucleotide sequences were similar to AM286415 and did not feature point mutations. In case of human Y. enterocolitica strains 31 were classified as belonging to genotype A, the remaining 59 belonged to genotype G and were characterized by the presence of point mutations.


No correlations were observed between enterotoxic properties and the presence of mutations in the ymoA gene region of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from both humans and pigs.

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