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J Vet Intern Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;28(6):1814-23. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12435. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the tumorigenesis of canine thyroid carcinoma.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine and Clinical Biology of Small Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Information on the genetic events leading to thyroid cancer in dogs is lacking.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES:

Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway has an important role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma in dogs.

ANIMALS:

Fifty-nine dogs with thyroid carcinoma and 10 healthy controls.

METHODS:

Quantitative RT-PCR was performed for VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, EGFR, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PDPK1, PTEN, AKT1, AKT2, COX-2, and CALCA. Mutation analysis was performed for known hotspots of RAS (N, K, H), PIK3CA, BRAF, RET, and for the entire coding region of PTEN.

RESULTS:

Forty-three dogs (73%) had follicular cell thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and 16 dogs (27%) had medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The relative mRNA expressions of VEGFR-1 (P < .001), VEGFR-2 (P = .002), PDPK1 (P < .001), AKT1 (P = .009), and AKT2 (P < .001) were increased in FTC, and those of EGFR (P < .001), VEGFR-1 (P = .036), and PIK3CA (P = .019) were increased in MTC when compared to normal thyroid glands. Mutation analysis of K-RAS identified 2 activating missense mutations, which also have been described in thyroid cancer of humans. A G12R substitution was present in 1 FTC and an E63K substitution was present in 1 MTC. No functional mutations were found in the sequenced regions of H-RAS, N-RAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, RET, and PTEN.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

The increased expression of several genes associated with PI3K/Akt signaling suggests the involvement of this pathway in the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinoma in dogs, warranting further research on pathway activation and gene amplification. The mutations most frequently associated with thyroid cancer in humans are rare in dogs.

KEYWORDS:

C-cell; Dog; Follicular; Medullary; RAS

PMID:
25231196
PMCID:
PMC4895609
DOI:
10.1111/jvim.12435
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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