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Biochimie. 2014 Dec;107 Pt A:105-13. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2014.09.003. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Emerging roles of secreted phospholipase A2 enzymes: the 3rd edition.

Author information

1
Lipid Metabolism Project, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. Electronic address: murakami-mk@igakuken.or.jp.
2
Lipid Metabolism Project, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan.
3
Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR 7275, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne 06560, France.

Abstract

Within the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes comprise the largest family that contains 11 to 12 mammalian isoforms with a conserved His-Asp catalytic dyad. Individual sPLA2s exhibit unique tissue and cellular localizations and specific enzymatic properties, suggesting distinct biological roles. Individual sPLA2s are involved in diverse biological events through lipid mediator-dependent or -independent processes and act redundantly or non-redundantly in a given microenvironment. In the past few years, new biological aspects of sPLA2s have been clarified using their transgenic and knockout mouse lines in combination with mass spectrometric lipidomics to unveil their target substrates and products in vivo. In the 3rd edition of this review series, we highlight the newest understanding of the in vivo functions of sPLA2s in pathophysiological conditions in the context of immunity and metabolism. We will also describe the latest knowledge on PLA2R1, the best known sPLA2 receptor, which may serve either as a clearance or signaling receptor for sPLA2 or may even act independently of sPLA2 function.

KEYWORDS:

Fatty acid; Lipid mediator; Phospholipid; Prostaglandin; Secreted phospholipase A(2)

PMID:
25230085
DOI:
10.1016/j.biochi.2014.09.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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