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Acta Trop. 2015 Jan;141(Pt B):198-203. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.09.003. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Evaluation of banked urine samples for the detection of circulating anodic and cathodic antigens in Schistosoma mekongi and S. japonicum infections: a proof-of-concept study.

Author information

1
Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: G.J.van_Dam@lumc.nl.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland.
3
Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Alabang, Muntinlupa City 1781, The Philippines.
4
Ingerod 407, S-45494 Brastad, Sweden.
5
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
6
Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
7
National Centre of Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Ministry of Health, Phnom Penh 12302, Cambodia.

Abstract

In Asia, Schistosoma japonicum is the predominant schistosome species, while Schistosoma mekongi is confined to limited foci in Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic. While the People's Republic of China has been successful in controlling schistosomiasis, the disease remains a major public health issue in other areas. In order to prioritise intervention areas, not only accurate diagnosis is important but also other factors, such as practicality, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness, since they strongly influence the success of control programmes. To evaluate the highly specific urine-based assays for the schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and the circulating anodic antigen (CAA), banked urine samples from Cambodia (n=106) and the Philippines (n=43) were examined by the upconverted phosphor lateral flow (UCP-LF) CAA assay and the point-of-care (POC)-CCA urine assay. Based on 250 μl urine samples, UCP-LF CAA sensitivity outcomes surpassed a single stool examination by the Kato-Katz technique. The banked urine samples in the current study did not allow the evaluation of larger volumes, which conceivably should deliver considerably higher readings. The sensitivity of a single urine POC-CCA was in the same order as that of a single Kato-Katz thick smear examination, while the sensitivity approached that of triplicate Kato-Katz when a combination of both CAA and CCA assays was used. The promising results from the current proof-of-concept study call for larger investigations that will determine the accuracy of the urine-based CCA and CAA assays for S. mekongi and S. japonicum diagnosis.

KEYWORDS:

Asian schistosomiasis; Cambodia; Circulating anodic antigen (CAA); Circulating cathodic antigen (CCA); Diagnosis; Lateral flow strip test; Philippines; Up-converting phosphor

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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