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Neuroimage. 2014 Dec;103:65-74. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.09.014. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Common and unique neural networks for proactive and reactive response inhibition revealed by independent component analysis of functional MRI data.

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Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Center for Integrative & Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN, USA.


Response inhibition involves proactive and reactive modes. Proactive inhibition is goal-directed, triggered by warning cues, and serves to restrain actions. Reactive inhibition is stimulus-driven, triggered by salient stop-signals, and used to stop actions completely. Functional MRI studies have identified brain regions that activate during proactive and reactive inhibition. It remains unclear how these brain regions operate in functional networks, and whether proactive and reactive inhibition depend on common networks, unique networks, or a combination. To address this we analyzed a large fMRI dataset (N=65) of a stop-signal task designed to measure proactive and reactive inhibition, using independent component analysis (ICA). We found 1) three frontal networks that were associated with both proactive and reactive inhibition, 2) one network in the superior parietal lobe, which also included dorsal premotor cortex and left putamen, that was specifically associated with proactive inhibition, and 3) two right-lateralized frontal and fronto-parietal networks, including the right inferior frontal gyrus and temporoparietal junction as well as a bilateral fronto-temporal network that were uniquely associated with reactive inhibition. Overlap between networks was observed in dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Taken together, we offer a new perspective on the neural underpinnings of inhibitory control, by showing that proactive inhibition and reactive inhibition are supported by a group of common and unique networks that appear to integrate and interact in frontoparietal areas.


Cognitive control; Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Independent component analysis; Response inhibition

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