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Trends Neurosci. 2014 Oct;37(10):563-71. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

Adult neural stem cells stake their ground.

Author information

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address: limd@neurosurg.ucsf.edu.
2
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address: abuylla@stemcell.ucsf.edu.

Abstract

The birth of new neurons in the walls of the adult brain lateral ventricles has captured the attention of many neuroscientists for over 2 decades, yielding key insights into the identity and regulation of neural stem cells (NSCs). In the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), NSCs are a specialized form of astrocyte that generates several types of neurons for the olfactory bulb. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding the unique organization of the V-SVZ NSC niche, the multiple regulatory controls of neuronal production, the distinct regional identities of adult NSCs, and the epigenetic mechanisms that maintain adult neurogenesis. Understanding how V-SVZ NSCs establish and maintain lifelong neurogenesis continues to provide surprising insights into the cellular and molecular regulation of neural development.

KEYWORDS:

chromatin; epigenetics; neural stem cell; neurogenesis; neurotransmitter; niche; regional identity

PMID:
25223700
PMCID:
PMC4203324
DOI:
10.1016/j.tins.2014.08.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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