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Nutrients. 2014 Sep 12;6(9):3624-40. doi: 10.3390/nu6093624.

Fatty acid status and its relationship to cognitive decline and homocysteine levels in the elderly.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Analysis, Pharmacy Faculty, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90610000, RS, Brazil. mariliabaierle@yahoo.com.br.
2
Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Analysis, Pharmacy Faculty, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90610000, RS, Brazil. patriciavencato@gmail.com.
3
Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Analysis, Pharmacy Faculty, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90610000, RS, Brazil. luoldenburg@yahoo.com.br.
4
Institute of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90035003, RS, Brazil. su.suelen@gmail.com.
5
Institute of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90035003, RS, Brazil. mugazibetti@gmail.com.
6
Institute of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90035003, RS, Brazil. clarissatrentini@terra.com.br.
7
Department of Health Sciences, Lutheran University of Brazil, Santa Maria 97020001, RS, Brazil. duartmm@hotmail.com.
8
Department of Alimentary Technology and Science, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria 97105900, RS, Brazil. juliana_veit@hotmail.com.
9
Department of Alimentary Technology and Science, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria 97105900, RS, Brazil. s_somacal@hotmail.com.
10
Department of Alimentary Technology and Science, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria 97105900, RS, Brazil. tatiemanuelli@gmail.com.
11
Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena 07743, Germany. tilman.grune@uni-jena.de.
12
Department of Applied Nutritional Science and Dietetics, Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70593, Germany. breusing@uni-hohenheim.de.
13
Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Analysis, Pharmacy Faculty, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90610000, RS, Brazil. solange.garcia@ufrgs.br.

Abstract

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥ 60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly.

PMID:
25221976
PMCID:
PMC4179179
DOI:
10.3390/nu6093624
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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