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Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 Dec;113(6):624-9. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2014.08.004. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

Relation between eosinophilic esophagitis and oral immunotherapy for food allergy: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

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Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital General de Tomelloso, Tomelloso, Ciudad Real, Spain. Electronic address:
Research Unit, Complejo Hospitalario La Mancha Centro, Alcázar de San Juan, Ciudad Real, Spain.



The onset of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) after oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been repeatedly described in patients with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy in recent years, but the relation between the 2 conditions has not been fully assessed and quantified.


To provide a systematic review of the evidence for an association between OIT and EoE.


Electronic searches were performed with keywords relating to EoE and OIT in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases. Summary estimates were calculated. A fixed-effects model was used depending on heterogeneity (I(2)). Risk of publication bias was assessed by funnel plot analysis and the Egger test.


The search yielded 118 documents, 15 of which were included in the quantitative summary. Most reported information came from children undergoing peanut, milk, and egg OIT. Significant publication bias in favor of studies reporting the development of EoE after OIT was documented. The overall prevalence of EoE after OIT was 2.7% (95% confidence interval 1.7%-4.0%, I(2) = 0%). Differences between medium-to high-quality studies and those of low quality were documented (3.5% vs 2.5%, respectively). EoE often resolved after OIT discontinuation; histologic remission of EoE achieved after allergen immunotherapy also was documented in 2 patients whose topical fluticasone treatment failed.


New onset of EoE after OIT occurs in up to 2.7% of patients with IgE-mediated food allergy undergoing this treatment strategy. The limited data on the utility of allergen immunotherapy as a therapy for EoE prevent a recommendation for this treatment option.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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