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Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1369-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1259657. Epub 2014 Aug 28.

Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak.

Author information

1
Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
2
Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. andersen@broadinstitute.org augstgoba@yahoo.com psabeti@oeb.harvard.edu.
3
Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. andersen@broadinstitute.org augstgoba@yahoo.com psabeti@oeb.harvard.edu.
4
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
5
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
6
Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone.
7
Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. Eastern Polytechnic College, Kenema, Sierra Leone.
8
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK.
9
Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
10
Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
11
Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
12
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
13
Redeemer's University, Ogun State, Nigeria.
14
University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
15
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK.

Abstract

In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78 patients in Sierra Leone to ~2000× coverage. We observed a rapid accumulation of interhost and intrahost genetic variation, allowing us to characterize patterns of viral transmission over the initial weeks of the epidemic. This West African variant likely diverged from central African lineages around 2004, crossed from Guinea to Sierra Leone in May 2014, and has exhibited sustained human-to-human transmission subsequently, with no evidence of additional zoonotic sources. Because many of the mutations alter protein sequences and other biologically meaningful targets, they should be monitored for impact on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies critical to outbreak response.

PMID:
25214632
PMCID:
PMC4431643
DOI:
10.1126/science.1259657
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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