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Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2014 Oct;28(5):861-90. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2014.06.008. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma: new therapeutic strategies.

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Department of Hematology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Via Conca 71, Ancona 60126, Italy.
Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, 1365 Clifton Road, Building C, Room 4004, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:


New treatment options for patients with myeloma have helped to change the natural history of this disease, even in the context of relapsed disease. For standard-risk patients, doublet-based therapy may offer benefit, whereas for patients with aggressive or genetically high-risk disease combinations of agents are needed for adequate disease control. Second-generation agents offer significant activity for patients with refractory myeloma, and new categories of agents provide new targets for future study and clinical use. Combinations of these agents in selected patient populations represent the next stage in the quest to cure myeloma.


Complete remission; Emerging agents; Immunomodulatory drugs; Multiple myeloma; Prognostic factors; Proteasome inhibitors; Relapsed/refractory

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