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Arch Toxicol. 2015 Nov;89(11):1993-2005. doi: 10.1007/s00204-014-1358-8. Epub 2014 Sep 11.

Fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS method measuring human mycotoxin exposure using biomarkers in urine.

Author information

1
Unit Toxins and Natural Components, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (CODA-CERVA), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080, Tervuren, Belgium.
2
Department of Organic Chemistry, Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S4, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.
3
Section for Chemistry and Toxicology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Sentrum, 0106, Oslo, Norway.
4
Unit Toxins and Natural Components, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (CODA-CERVA), Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080, Tervuren, Belgium. alfons.callebaut@coda-cerva.be.

Abstract

A direct, fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed to measure biomarkers for mycotoxin exposure in human urine. In total, 32 biomarkers were quantitatively or semi-quantitatively measured in 32 urine samples of Belgian volunteers using two injections. All urine samples contained deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide, the major detoxification metabolite of deoxynivalenol, in the ng/mL range. Also deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide were present in, respectively, 90 and 25% of the samples, while deoxynivalenol was detected in 60% of the samples, in lower concentrations. Deoxynivalenol glucuronides were the major biomarkers for deoxynivalenol exposure. Ochratoxin A was detected in 70% of the samples in pg/mL. Citrinin and/or dihydrocitrinone were detected in 90% of the samples, also in concentrations of pg/mL. The presence of ochratoxin A and citrinin was confirmed by a second method using sample cleanup by immunoaffinity columns, followed by LC-MS/MS. Our data show that humans are much more exposed to citrinin than realized before and suggest further work on citrinin exposure in relation with ochratoxin A exposure, as both mycotoxins are nephrotoxic.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; Glucuronides; LC–MS/MS; Mycotoxin exposure; Urine

PMID:
25209565
DOI:
10.1007/s00204-014-1358-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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