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J Extra Corpor Technol. 2014 Jun;46(2):173-6.

Bloodless pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass for a 3.2-kg patient whose parents are of Jehovah's Witness faith.


Patients and parents of Jehovah's Witness (JW) faith present multiple challenges to a medical team, especially in the neonatal and pediatric population. The medical team must balance honoring the parents' request of not receiving blood products and fulfilling our commitment as advocates for the child's wellbeing. A multidisciplinary approach to cardiac surgery must be embraced for bloodless cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to be successful. At our institution, we have developed strategies and techniques for blood conservation that are used preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively for every CPB case with the goal of a bloodless procedure. These protocols include: preoperative erythropoietin, preoperative iron administration, selection of a CPB circuit specific to the patient's height and weight, acute normovolemic hemodilution, retrograde autologous prime and venous autologous prime, tranexamic acid administration, zero-balance ultrafiltration, flushing of the pump suckers post-CPB, modified ultrafiltration, and cell salvage. We present an 8-day-old, 3.2-kg patient of JW faith with aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation and a patent foramen ovale who underwent a bloodless left ventricle-to-aorta tunnel repair and aortic valve repair on CPB.

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