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Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015 Jan;17(1):61-73. doi: 10.1111/dom.12390. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

Synergistic metabolic benefits of an exenatide analogue and cholecystokinin in diet-induced obese and leptin-deficient rodents.

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Amylin Pharmaceuticals, LLC, San Diego, CA, USA.



To test the impact of cholecystokinin (CCK) plus either amylin or a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist on metabolic variables in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents.


A stabilized acetylated version of CCK-8 (Ac-Y*-CCK-8), selective CCK1 receptor (CCK1R) or CCK2 receptor (CCK2R) agonists, amylin or the GLP-1R agonist and exenatide analogue AC3174 were administered in select combinations via continuous subcutaneous infusion to DIO rats for 14 days, or Lep(ob) /Lep(ob) mice for 28 days, and metabolic variables were assessed.


Combined administration of Ac-Y*-CCK-8 with either amylin or AC3174 induced greater than additive weight loss in DIO rats, with the overall magnitude of effect being greater with AC3174 + Ac-Y*-CCK-8 treatment. Co-infusion of AC3174 with a specific CCK1R agonist, but not a CCK2R agonist, recapitulated the weight loss mediated by AC3174 + Ac-Y*-CCK-8 in DIO rats, suggesting that synergy is mediated by CCK1R activation. In a 4 × 4 full-factorial response surface methodology study in DIO rats, a synergistic interaction between AC3174 and the CCK1R-selective agonist on body weight and food intake was noted. Co-administration of AC3174 and the CCK1R-selective agonist to obese diabetic Lep(ob) /Lep(ob) mice elicited a significantly greater reduction in percentage of glycated haemoglobin and food intake relative to the sum effects of monotherapy groups.


The anti-obesity and antidiabetic potential of combined GLP-1R and CCK1R agonism is an approach that warrants further investigation.


GLP-1 analogue; antidiabetic drug; experimental pharmacology; weight loss therapy

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