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Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug;28(4):685-702. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2014.07.009. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Endoscopic treatment: the past, the present and the future.

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Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:


The obesity epidemic asks for an active involvement of gastroenterologists: many of the co-morbidities associated with obesity involve the gastrointestinal tract; a small proportion of obese patients will need bariatric surgery and may suffer from surgical complications that may be solved by minimally invasive endoscopic techniques; and finally, the majority will not be eligible for bariatric surgery and will need some other form of treatment. The first approach should consist of an energy-restricted diet, physical exercise and behaviour modification, followed by pharmacotherapy. For patients who do not respond to medical therapy but are not or not yet surgical candidates, an endoscopic treatment might look attractive. So, endoscopic bariatric therapy has a role to play either as an alternative or adjunct to medical treatment. The different endoscopic modalities may vary in mechanisms of action: by gastric distension and space occupation, delayed gastric emptying, gastric restriction and decreased distensibility, impaired gastric accommodation, stimulation of antroduodenal receptors, or by duodenal exclusion and malabsorption. These treatments will be discussed into detail.


Aspire bariatrics system; Botulinum toxin A; Duodenojejunal bypass liner; Duodenojejunal bypass sleeve; Endoscopy; Gastric bubble; Gastric stapling; Gastric suturing; Intragastric balloons

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