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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Nov;106(2):173-81. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.08.009. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

β-hydroxybutyrate: much more than a metabolite.

Author information

1
Division of Geriatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Gladstone Institutes, University of California San Francisco, 1650 Owens St., San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
2
Gladstone Institutes, University of California San Francisco, 1650 Owens St., San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: everdin@gladstone.ucsf.edu.

Abstract

The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) is a convenient carrier of energy from adipocytes to peripheral tissues during fasting or exercise. However, βOHB is more than just a metabolite, having important cellular signaling roles as well. βOHB is an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a ligand for at least two cell surface receptors. In addition, the downstream products of βOHB metabolism including acetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) themselves have signaling activities. These regulatory functions of βOHB serve to link the outside environment to cellular function and gene expression, and have important implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Acetylation; Epigenetics; HDAC; Ketone bodies; Low carbohydrate

PMID:
25193333
PMCID:
PMC4414487
DOI:
10.1016/j.diabres.2014.08.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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