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J Neurotrauma. 2015 Feb 15;32(4):209-20. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3506. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Aging, neurodegenerative disease, and traumatic brain injury: the role of neuroimaging.

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1 Rotman Research Institute , Baycrest Health Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada .


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly prevalent condition with significant effects on cognition and behavior. While the acute and sub-acute effects of TBI recover over time, relatively little is known about the long-term effects of TBI in relation to neurodegenerative disease. This issue has recently garnered a great deal of attention due to publicity surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes, although CTE is but one of several neurodegenerative disorders associated with a history of TBI. Here, we review the literative on neurodegenerative disorders linked to remote TBI. We also review the evidence for neuroimaging changes associated with unhealthy brain aging in the context of remote TBI. We conclude that neuroimaging biomarkers have significant potential to increase understanding of the mechanisms of unhealthy brain aging and neurodegeneration following TBI, with potential for identifying those at risk for unhealthy brain aging prior to the clinical manifestation of neurodegenerative disease.


Alzheimer's disease; aging; chronic traumatic encephalopathy; neurodegenerative disease; remote traumatic brain injury

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