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PLoS One. 2014 Sep 5;9(9):e106562. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106562. eCollection 2014.

CX3CL1 (fractalkine) protein expression in normal and degenerating mouse retina: in vivo studies.

Author information

1
Department of Neurophysiology and Neuropharmacology, Center of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Ophthalmology and Gene Therapy Centre, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America.
2
Department of Neurophysiology and Neuropharmacology, Center of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
3
Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, Center of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

We aimed to investigate fractalkine (CX3CL1) protein expression in wild type (wt) retina and its alterations during retinal degeneration in mouse model (rd10) of retinitis pigmentosa. Forms of retinal protein CX3CL1, total protein and mRNA levels of CX3CL1 were analyzed at postnatal days (P) 5, 10, 14, 22, 30, 45, and 60 by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Cellular sources of CX3CL1 were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH) and using transgenic (CX3CL1cherry) mice. The immunoblots revealed that in both, wt and rd10 retinas, a membrane integrated ∼100 kDa CX3CL1 form and a cleaved ∼85 kDa CX3CL1 form were present at P5. At P10, accumulation of another presumably intra-neuronal ∼95 kDa form and a decrease in the ∼85-kDa form were observed. From P14, a ∼95 kDa form became principal in wt retina, while in rd10 retinas a soluble ∼85 kDa form increased at P45 and P60. In comparison, retinas of rd10 mice had significantly lower levels of total CX3CL1 protein (from P10 onwards) and lower CX3CL1 mRNA levels (from P14), even before the onset of primary rod degeneration. ISH and mCherry reporter fluorescence showed neurons in the inner retina layers as principal sites of CX3CL1 synthesis both in wt and rd10 retinas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CX3CL1 has a distinctive course of expression and functional regulation in rd10 retina starting at P10. The biological activity of CX3CL1 is regulated by conversion of a membrane integrated to a soluble form during neurogenesis and in response to pathologic changes in the adult retinal milieu. Viable mature neurons in the inner retina likely exhibit a dynamic intracellular storage depot of CX3CL1.

PMID:
25191897
PMCID:
PMC4156323
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0106562
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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