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Sleep Med. 2014 Nov;15(11):1405-10. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2014.06.009. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Sleep disorders increase the risk of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taichung Branch, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaoshiung, Taiwan.
Department of Nursing, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, E-DA Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:



Sleep disorders (SD), including apnea and nonapnea, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS) have been mutually associated with systemic diseases. Based on our research, the association between BMS and SD has not been elucidated. We determined whether SD patients have an increased risk of BMS.


We used information from health insurance claims obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) program. We identified patients newly diagnosed with sleep apnea syndrome between 1998 and 2001 as the apnea SD cohort, and newly diagnosed patients with nonapnea SD as the nonapnea SD cohort. The non-SD cohort was 1:2 frequency matched the case group according to sex, age, and index year. We analyzed the risks of BMS by using Cox proportional hazards regression models.


Compared with the non-SD cohort, both of the apnea SD (adjusted HR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.30-5.05) and nonapnea SD (adjusted HR = 2.89, 95% CI = 2.51-3.34) were associated with a significantly higher risk of BMS. The hazard ratio (HR) increased with increased age in the apnea SD cohort and in the nonapnea SD cohort compared with patients younger than 40 years of age. Female apnea SD patients (IRR = 4.63, 95% CI = 3.82-5.61) had a higher risk of developing BMS than did male patients (IRR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.39-2.24).


Based on our research, SD might increase the risk of BMS.


Burning mouth syndrome (BMS); Comorbidity; National Health Insurance; Retrospective cohort study; Sleep disorder (SD)

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