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Nat Commun. 2014 Sep 5;5:4737. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5737.

The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

Author information

1
1] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2].
2
1] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [3] Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [4] Center of Excellence in Cancer Genetics, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [5] [6].
3
1] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [3].
4
Department of Computer Science &Helsinki Institute for Information Technology HIIT, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
5
1] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
6
Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
7
1] Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
8
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
9
Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
10
1] Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] Biotechnology and Food Research, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen, Finland.
11
1] Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK [2] Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
12
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.
13
College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P.R. China.
14
1] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK.
15
Department of Entomology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
16
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
17
BioMediTech, University of Tampere, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland.
18
Department of Information Technology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
19
Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
20
Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
21
1] European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SD, UK [2] Baylor College of Medicine, Human Genome Sequencing Center, Houston, Texas 77030-3411, USA.
22
1] Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School &Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland [2] Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [3] The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
23
Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
24
1] Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [3] Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, SE-14183 Stockholm, Sweden.
25
1] Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, SE-14183 Stockholm, Sweden.
26
European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SD, UK.
27
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881-0816, USA.
28
1] Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland [2].

Abstract

Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.

PMID:
25189940
PMCID:
PMC4164777
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms5737
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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