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Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;14(11):1113-1122. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70831-X. Epub 2014 Sep 1.

Emerging viral respiratory tract infections--environmental risk factors and transmission.

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Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, CHU Nord, Pôle Infectieux, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France; Aix Marseille Université, Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
College of Public Health and Health Professions and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
Aix Marseille Université, IRD French Institute of Research for Development, EHESP French School of Public Health, EPV UMR-D 190 "Emergence des Pathologies Virales" and IHU Méditerranée Infection, APHM Public Hospitals of Marseille, Marseille, France.
Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, and Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana, USA.
Center for Clinical Microbiology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Center, University College London Hospitals, London, UK.
WHO Collaborating Center for Mass Gathering Medicine Ministry of Health and Al-Faisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


The past decade has seen the emergence of several novel viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in human beings, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, an H7N9 influenza A virus in eastern China, a swine-like influenza H3N2 variant virus in the USA, and a human adenovirus 14p1 also in the USA. MERS-CoV and H7N9 viruses are still a major worldwide public health concern. The pathogenesis and mode of transmission of MERS-CoV and H7N9 influenza A virus are poorly understood, making it more difficult to implement intervention and preventive measures. A united and coordinated global response is needed to tackle emerging viruses that can cause fatal respiratory tract infections and to fill major gaps in the understanding of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of these viruses.

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