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Sci Transl Med. 2014 Sep 3;6(252):252ra120. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3008791.

Breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop distinct gut microbiotas and immune systems.

Author information

1
California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
2
California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
4
Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
5
California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. dhartigan@ucdavis.edu.

Abstract

Diet has a strong influence on the intestinal microbiota in both humans and animal models. It is well established that microbial colonization is required for normal development of the immune system and that specific microbial constituents prompt the differentiation or expansion of certain immune cell subsets. Nonetheless, it has been unclear how profoundly diet might shape the primate immune system or how durable the influence might be. We show that breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop markedly different immune systems, which remain different 6 months after weaning when the animals begin receiving identical diets. In particular, breast-fed infants develop robust populations of memory T cells as well as T helper 17 (TH17) cells within the memory pool, whereas bottle-fed infants do not. These findings may partly explain the variation in human susceptibility to conditions with an immune basis, as well as the variable protection against certain infectious diseases.

PMID:
25186175
PMCID:
PMC4362692
DOI:
10.1126/scitranslmed.3008791
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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