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Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014 Jul;4(7):529-37. doi: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1099.

Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

Author information

1
Cosmetic Science Center, Department of Chemistry, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea ; Jeju Technopark, Ara-1-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju 690-121, Korea.
2
Cosmetic Science Center, Department of Chemistry, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea ; Citrus Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA, Jeju 699-946, Korea.
3
Jeju Love Co., Ltd., 542-5 Haengwon-ri, Gujwa-eup, Jeju 695-975, Korea.
4
Jeju Technopark, Ara-1-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju 690-121, Korea.
5
Cosmetic Science Center, Department of Chemistry, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea.
6
Cosmetic Science Center, Department of Chemistry, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea ; LINC Agency, Jeju National University, Ara-1-dong, Jeju 690-756, Korea.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.

METHODS:

Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds, Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P. cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

RESULTS:

Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43, 32.81 and 37.14 µg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and 74.75 µg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 µg/mL, respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 µg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 µg/mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 µg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 µg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 µg/mg for G. filicina.

CONCLUSIONS:

Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for inflammatory responses.

KEYWORDS:

Interleukin-6; Nitric oxide; Proinflammatory mediators; Prostaglandin E2; Seaweeds; Tumor necrosis factor-α

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