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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Sep 1;23(7):613-29. doi: 10.1089/ars.2014.5962. Epub 2014 Oct 3.

Frequency Modulated Translocational Oscillations of Nrf2 Mediate the Antioxidant Response Element Cytoprotective Transcriptional Response.

Author information

1
1 Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, Warwick Medical School, University Hospital , University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom .
2
2 Warwick Systems Biology Centre, University of Warwick , Coventry, United Kingdom .
3
3 School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick , Wellesbourne, United Kingdom .

Abstract

AIMS:

Stress responsive signaling coordinated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) provides an adaptive response for protection of cells against toxic insults, oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction. Nrf2 regulates a battery of protective genes by binding to regulatory antioxidant response elements (AREs). The aim of this study was to examine how Nrf2 signals cell stress status and regulates transcription to maintain homeostasis.

RESULTS:

In live cell microscopy we observed that Nrf2 undergoes autonomous translocational frequency-modulated oscillations between cytoplasm and nucleus. Oscillations occurred in quiescence and when cells were stimulated at physiological levels of activators, they decrease in period and amplitude and then evoke a cytoprotective transcriptional response. We propose a mechanism whereby oscillations are produced by negative feedback involving successive de-phosphorylation and phosphorylation steps. Nrf2 was inactivated in the nucleus and reactivated on return to the cytoplasm. Increased frequency of Nrf2 on return to the cytoplasm with increased reactivation or refresh-rate under stress conditions activated the transcriptional response mediating cytoprotective effects. The serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PGAM5, member of the Nrf2 interactome, was a key regulatory component.

INNOVATION:

We found that Nrf2 is activated in cells without change in total cellular Nrf2 protein concentration. Regulation of ARE-linked protective gene transcription occurs rather through translocational oscillations of Nrf2. We discovered cytoplasmic refresh rate of Nrf2 is important in maintaining and regulating the transcriptional response and links stress challenge to increased cytoplasmic surveillance. We found silencing and inhibition of PGAM5 provides potent activation of Nrf2.

CONCLUSION:

Frequency modulated translocational oscillations of Nrf2 mediate the ARE-linked cytoprotective transcriptional response.

PMID:
25178584
PMCID:
PMC4556091
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2014.5962
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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