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J Forensic Dent Sci. 2014 Sep;6(3):166-70. doi: 10.4103/0975-1475.137050.

Estimation of age by Kvaal's technique in sample Indian population to establish the need for local Indian-based formulae.

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Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere, Karnataka, India.
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India.



Age estimation using radiographs by Kvaal and coauthors has shown to be reliable method, possible variation in ethnicity restricts its use in sample Indian population.


Thus this study was aimed at evaluating the accuracy of age estimation formula of Kvaal and coauthors developed for Norwegian population.


From the subjects (1-100) between the age group 20 and 50 years digitized intraoral periapical (IOPA) radiograph of maxillary central incisors was taken and length and width of the teeth were measured and their ratios were calculated and applied to Kvaal and coauthors formula. The estimated age and chronological age were compared, less accurate results were found in sample Indian population. Modified Kvaal's formula was then developed by using regression analysis of the ratios and to evaluate the accuracy of this formula, the study was repeated using same criteria and methodology on another subjects (101-200).


Using Kvaal's formula standard error of estimated age was more in sample Indian population when compared with Norwegian population. Then modified Kvaal's formula was developed and applied to sample Indian population, which showed accurate results.


This study concludes that formula which was derived from Norwegian population is not applicable to sample Indian population.


Age estimation; Kvaal's method; dental radiographs; maxillary central incisor; secondary dentin and dental pulp

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