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Cell Metab. 2014 Nov 4;20(5):753-760. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.006.

Microbial modulation of insulin sensitivity.

Author information

1
Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden.
2
Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, AMC-UvA, 1091 EN Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, AMC-UvA, 1091 EN Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section for Metabolic Receptology and Enteroendocrinology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-2200 Denmark. Electronic address: Fredrik.Backhed@wlab.gu.se.

Abstract

The gut microbiota has emerged as an integral factor that impacts host metabolism and has been suggested to play a vital role in metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In humans, cross-sectional studies have identified microbiota profiles associated with metabolic diseases, whereas causation mainly has been demonstrated in animal models. Recent studies involving microbiota-based interventions in humans, or transfer of disease-associated microbiota into germ-free mice, underscore that an altered microbiota may directly modulate host metabolism in humans. However, it will be essential to determine whether an altered gut microbiota precedes development of insulin resistance and diabetes and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Increased mechanistic insights of how the microbiota modulates metabolic disease in humans may pave the way for identification of innovative microbiota-based diagnostics and/or therapeutics.

PMID:
25176147
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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