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Acad Pediatr. 2014 Sep-Oct;14(5 Suppl):S27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2014.06.013.

Developing measures for pediatric quality: methods and experiences of the CHIPRA pediatric quality measures program grantees.

Author information

National Committee for Quality Assurance, Washington, DC. Electronic address:
Dalhousie University, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Ohio State University and Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Wash.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa.
Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wis; American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, Illinois.
Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.
Child Health Evaluation and Research Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services, Springfield, Ill.
National Committee for Quality Assurance, Washington, DC.



Monitoring quality is an important way of understanding how the health care system is serving children and families. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) Pediatric Quality Measures Program (PQMP) funded efforts to develop and enhance measures to assess care for children and adolescents. We describe the processes used by the PQMP grantees to develop measures to assess the health care of children and adolescents in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program.


Key steps in the measures development process include identifying concepts, reviewing and synthesizing evidence, prioritizing concepts, defining how measures should be calculated, and measure testing. Stakeholder engagement throughout the process is critical. Case studies illustrate how PQMP grantees adapted the process to respond to the nature of measures they were charged to develop and overcome challenges encountered.


PQMP grantees used varied approaches to measures development but faced common challenges, some specific to the field of pediatrics and some general to all quality measures. Major challenges included the limited evidence base, data systems difficult or unsuited for measures reporting, and conflicting stakeholder priorities.


As part of the PQMP, grantees were able to explore innovative methods to overcome measurement challenges, including new approaches to building the evidence base and stakeholder consensus, integration of alternative data sources, and implementation of new testing methods. As a result, the PQMP has developed new quality measures for pediatric care while also building an infrastructure, expertise, and enhanced methods for measures development that promise to provide more relevant and meaningful tools for improving the quality of children's health care.


CHIPRA; Pediatric Quality Measures Program; quality measures

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