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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug 28;8(8):e3116. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003116. eCollection 2014 Aug.

Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
2
James A. Baker Institute of Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
3
Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Molecular Virology and Microbiology, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Abstract

Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

PMID:
25166906
PMCID:
PMC4148222
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pntd.0003116
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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