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Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):449-52. doi: 10.1038/nature13415.

Comparative analysis of metazoan chromatin organization.

Author information

1
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] [4] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.).
2
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3].
3
1] Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [3] [4] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.).
4
Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
5
1] Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA [2] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.).
6
1] Department of Information and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Korea [2] Systems Biomedical Informatics Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Korea.
7
1] Department of Genome Dynamics, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.).
8
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
9
The Gurdon Institute and Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK.
10
1] National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA [2] National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
11
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.
12
1] Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [2] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA [3] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.).
13
1] Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA [2] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.).
14
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Program in Bioinformatics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.
15
Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.
16
Department of Bioinformatics, School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.
17
1] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
18
1] Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA [2] Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 21545 El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt.
19
Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.
20
Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
21
Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.
22
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Harvard/MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
23
Department of Anatomy Physiology and Cell Biology, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA.
24
Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA.
25
1] Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA [2] Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA.
26
National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
27
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA.
28
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
29
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
30
Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M6G 1L7, Canada.
31
1] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA.
32
1] Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [2] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA.
33
1] Department of Genome Dynamics, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
34
Department of Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
35
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
36
1] Department of Genome Dynamics, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA.
37
1] Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA [2] Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, 901 87 Umea, Sweden.
38
1] Systems Biomedical Informatics Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Korea [2] Seoul National University Biomedical Informatics, Division of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Korea.
39
1] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA [3] Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
40
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.
41
1] Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
42
1] Program in Bioinformatics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.
43
1] Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [3] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA.
44
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Informatics Program, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

Abstract

Genome function is dynamically regulated in part by chromatin, which consists of the histones, non-histone proteins and RNA molecules that package DNA. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have contributed substantially to our understanding of molecular mechanisms of genome function in humans, and have revealed conservation of chromatin components and mechanisms. Nevertheless, the three organisms have markedly different genome sizes, chromosome architecture and gene organization. On human and fly chromosomes, for example, pericentric heterochromatin flanks single centromeres, whereas worm chromosomes have dispersed heterochromatin-like regions enriched in the distal chromosomal 'arms', and centromeres distributed along their lengths. To systematically investigate chromatin organization and associated gene regulation across species, we generated and analysed a large collection of genome-wide chromatin data sets from cell lines and developmental stages in worm, fly and human. Here we present over 800 new data sets from our ENCODE and modENCODE consortia, bringing the total to over 1,400. Comparison of combinatorial patterns of histone modifications, nuclear lamina-associated domains, organization of large-scale topological domains, chromatin environment at promoters and enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and DNA replication patterns reveals many conserved features of chromatin organization among the three organisms. We also find notable differences in the composition and locations of repressive chromatin. These data sets and analyses provide a rich resource for comparative and species-specific investigations of chromatin composition, organization and function.

Comment in

PMID:
25164756
PMCID:
PMC4227084
DOI:
10.1038/nature13415
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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