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J Med Food. 2015 Feb;18(2):173-81. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.0003. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Dietary lutein modulates growth and survival genes in prostate cancer cells.

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1 Department of Food Science, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey , New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA .


Lutein is a carotenoid pigment present in fruits and vegetables that has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. In this study, we examined the effect of lutein on proliferation and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. We found that in vitro culture of PC-3 cells with lutein induced mild decrease in proliferation that improved in combination treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARĪ³) agonists and other chemotherapeutic agents. Flow cytometry analyses showed that lutein improved drug-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer. Gene array and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that lutein altered the expression of growth and apoptosis-associated biomarker genes in PC-3 cells. These findings highlight that lutein modulates the expression of growth and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer cells.


PC-3 cells; cancer prevention; carotenoids; lutein; prostate cancer

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